OPISTHQBRANCH NEWSLETTER Volume 13, Number 2, Page 12 4 MAR i
9982 BEHRENS, D. - Delete. See 2486 RUSSO, ROM. \e c °£?
The San Luis Obispo County (California) Telegram-Tribune, Monday, January 26,
1981, has a picture of Phidiana pugnax which was taken by Joe Dickerson of Pismo
Beach. The picture won the 1980 Picture of the Year award given by the California
Fish and Game Commission.
Hans Bertsch writes: "...I just corrected the page proofs (complete with color
separations) for my and Scott Johnson's book Hawaiian Nudibranchs. We expect it |o\l
be published by April 1981. The majority of the full color photographs are in situ, \ \\
underwater habitat shots (not aquarium photos), and portray the animals' natural
environments as well as their body shapes and colors. We have new records for the
Hawaiian islands, illustrations of some new species we are in the process of naming,
plus lots of information and photos of predation, camouflage, egg masses, etc."
2373 BERTSCH, HANS. January 1, 1981. Rectification of the Generic Placement of
Sclerodoris tanya (Marcus, 1971), comb, nov., A Nudibranch from Southern California,
with a Range Extension to the Gulf of California, Mexico. THE VELIGER, 23( 3 ):217-220,
figs. 1-7; tbls. 1-2.
2374 BERTSCH, HANS, June, 1980. Preliminary Analysis of the Geographic and
Bathymetric Distribution of Hawaiian Chromodorids (GastroDoda: Opisthobranchia) .
THE FESTIVUS, 12(6 ):73-77; fig. 1; tbl. 1.
2475 BROWN, G.H., July, 198O. The British species of the aeolidacean family
Tergipedidae (Gastropoda : Opisthobranchia) with a discussion of the genera.
ZOOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, 69:225-255, 7 figs.
2476 CAREFOOT, THOMAS, 1977- Pacific seashores: a guide to intertidal ecology.
University of Washington Press, Seattle, 208 pp., 88 photographs, 176 text figs.
[Aeolidia, Anisodoris, Archidoris, Dendronotus, Diaulula, Glaucus, Glaucilla,
2477 CAREW, THOMAS J., EDGAR T. WALTERS & ERIC R. KANDEL, January 30, 1981.
Associative learning in Aplysia: cellular correlates supporting a conditioned fear
hypothesis. SCIENCE, 211 (4481 ) :501-504, 2 text figs.
2478 CARLTON, JAMES T., 1979. Introduced Invertebrates of San Francisco Bay. IN:
C0N0M0S, T. JOHN, San Francisco Bay: The Urbanized Estuary. Investigations into the
Natural History of San Francisco Bay and Delta With Reference to the Influence of
Man. FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE PACIFIC DIVISION/AMERICAN ASSOCIATION
FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, held at San Francisco State University, San
Francisco, California, June 12-16, 1977, pp. 427-444. [Tenellia pallida, Eubranchus
asisakiensis, Okenia plana, Trinehesia sp.]
2479 DELCOMYN, FRED, October 31, 1980. Neural basis of rythmic behavior in animals.
SCIENCE, 210(4469 ):492-498. [Pleurobranchaea californica, Aplysia sp., Tritonia
2480 DOLIN, ERIC, Fall 1980. An Annotated List of Gastropods of Long Island Sound.
OF SEA AND SHORE, 11(3): 167-172, [9 figs.]. [Retusa canaliculata, Cylichnella oryza,
2481 FARLEY, JOSEPH & DANIEL L. ALKON, December 19, 1980. Neural organization
predicts stimulus specificity for a retained associative behavioral change. SCIENCE,
210(4476):1373-1375; 2 text figs. [Hermissenda crassicornis]
2482 GOSLINER, TERRENCE M., April. 1980. Systematics and phylogeny of the Aglajidae
(Opisthobranchia : Mollusca). ZOOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LLINNEAN SOCIETY, 68:325-
360. 24 figs.
2483 JAECKLE. WILLIAM B., January 1, 1981. New Distributional Records for Two
California Nudibranchs. THE VELIGER, 23(3):240. [Ancula lentiginosa, Hallaxa chani]
2484 JOHNSON, SCOTT, July-August, 1979- Stinging nudibranchs. OCEANS, 12(4):49; 1
2485 KAY, E. ALLISON, 1979- Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii, Section 4: Mollusca.
Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publications 64 (4). xvii + 653 pp., 195 text figs.
Bernice P. Bishop Museum Press. Honolulu, Hawaii. [$30.00 USA]
_ 2486 RUSSO, RON, May-June 1979- Hang Gliding -- Underwater. SEA FRONTIERS, :150-
153, 4 photos. [Chelidonura inermis]
2487 RUSSO, RON, July-August, 1979- A salute to sea slugs. OCEANS, 12(4):42-49; 6
2488 POWELL, A.W.B., 1979. New Zealand Mollusca, Marine, Land and Freshwater Shells.
William Collins Publishers Ltd., Box 1, Auckland, New Zealand, xiv + 500 pp., 82 pis.;
many text figs. [$60.00 (New Zealand)]
2489 SCHMEKEL, LUISE, January 1, 1981 - Notes & News. Correction. THE VELIGER,
23(3):282. [Piseieotecus evelmae synonymous with Flabellina gabinierei Vincente,
1975; should be called Piseinotecus gabinierei (Vicente, 1975)1
2490 SMITH, LYNW00D S., 1976. Living Shores of the Pacific Northwest. Pacific
Search Books, 715 Harrison St., Seattle, WA 98109, 1-160; figs. 1-148 + unnumbered
figs.; tbls. 1-2. [Photos by Bernard J. Nist; 9 spp. nudibranchs]
2491 WALTERS, EDGAR T., THOMAS J. CAREW & ERIC R. KANDEL, January 30 ? 1981.
Associateve learning in Aplysia: evidence for conditioned fear in an invertebrate
SCIENCE, 211(448l):504-506; 2 text figs. [A. californica]
2492 WELLS, FRED E. & TIMOTHY J. THRELFALL, October 1, 1980. A Survey of the
Softbottom Molluscs of Cockburn Sound. Western Australia. THE VELIGER, 23(2):131-
140, tbls. 1-3, figs. 1-7. [Bulla botanica]
Zoo*. Oept^ ;
Volume 13, Number 4, Page 15
%V#fc ". ^&'L-^flfc^- ' -, • ,
Illustration at right
Phyllaplysia engeli Marcus, 1955
Drawing by Eveline Marcus
The OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER is published by Steven J. Long, 359 Roycroft
Ave, Long Beach, California 90814, USA. Telephone 21 3-439 -2026 .
Subscription rates are $15-00 per year for individuals and $17-50
for institutions. Back volumes are available at $10.00 per volume.
(24X reduction) of back volumes are $5-00 per volume.
Two photographic works are listed in this issues from James Lance. The
quality of the photographic and printing work is unsurpassed by anything 1
have seen to date. It is quite an accomplishment to bring the beauty of
opisthobranchs to such a wide audience. My compliments to Jim. Anyone
interested in obtaining copies of these articles may do so by writing to the
Discover: Time, Inc.; Rockefeller Center: New York, NY 10020; (Splendor in
the Sea); (December 1 9 8 issue; about $2.00)
Seacoast; The Seacoast Building; 121 West E Street; Encinitas, CA 92024:
(20,000 Hues Under the Sea); (February 19 81 issue; about $1.50)
The Western Society of Malacologists annual meeting will be held at San
Diego State University from 23-26 June, 1 9 8 1 . A symposium entitled: "Recent
Opisthobranch Research" will be chaired by James R. Lance on Thursday
morning. Dave Mulliner will coordinate the annual opisthobranch slide show
and talk fest starting around 8 P.M., Wednesday, in the lobby of Olmeca Hall.
All persons desiring to participate with a paper are encouraged to contact
Carol Skogland, 384b E. Highland Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85018, prior to May 15,
From Judith Hunter: "I would like to endorse your remarks about the use
of common names for animals which do not have them and particularly when
given more prominence than the scientific name."
From Dr. Riccardo Cattaneo: "I need some information. Firstly I have
begun a study of electrophoresis on some nudibranchs (especially eolids) to
see if there are differences in the enzymes of species who live in the same
community and feed on the same hydroids. This study may be interesting also
for systematic problems. I have not found many references about this
argument. Is it possible to know something more? Would anyone who has any
news please write to me?
Secondly, I have seen in Thompson's paper (1975) that gen. Peltodoris
Bergh 1880 is in synonymy with Discodoris Bergh 1877- I know Peltodoris
atromaculata Bergh i860 (type species of the genus), which is very common in
Mediterranean Sea, very well. The description in Thompson's paper for the
genus Discodoris speaks of a 'whole body flexible, not hard and rubbery .
Peltodoris atromaculata has however a very hard body, very rich in spicules
I think this genus must be conserved only for this very evident
characteristic which is part of the type species of the genus."
From Eveline Marcus: "Your question about Pyramidellid s: Vera Fretter and
Alastair Graham have (1949, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 28:493-532) concludea
that they are opisthobranch gastropods. In 1965 Doris Maas (Zeitschrift
Morphologie und Okologie. 54:566-642) confirms Fretter and Graham.
On p. 11 of the News Letter you place the Notaspidea (often called
Pleurobranchomorpha ) in the Nudibranchia . However, a great number of them
OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER Volume 13, Number 4, Page 14
have a shell, and they are generally considered as a Superorder of the
Euthyneura, on the same level as Cephalaspidea ( Bullomorpha ) ; Anaspidea
( Aplysiomorpha ) • Superorders Ascoglossa; Pteropoda; Nudibranchia ;
Pulmonata. The Prosobranchia belong to another Subclass, the Streptoneura.
Mr. Dolin, No. 2480, is not right with Retusa canaliculata. Canaliculata
has a radula, Retusa has none. See Journal of Molluscan Studies, Suppl. 2.
1977, p. 5, where it is^ called Utriculastra canaliculata.
Jeff Hamann found 'color variations from Chromodoris neona to C.
clenchi.' These species are not distinguished by their extremely variable
colours, but by their rhachidian radular tooth, different in shape in both
species; it has a distinct small cusp in neona, none in clenchi."
From J.^A. Ortea: "En el mes de abril he impartido un cursillo de
Malacologia en la Universidad de Nayarit, Me'xico y eh recolectado
Opisthobranquios en la Isla Isabela; entre ellos en Chromodoris sphoni, uno
de los mas bellos animales que he visto nunca.
Mas tarde, en julio, he recolectado Opisthobranquios en Canarias junto
con P. Bouchet y los colegas de la Universidad de la Laguna. Mi primer
trabajo sobre ello, dedicado a los Ascoglosos, esta a punto de terminarse,
incluye 2, especies del Caribe: Elysia flava y Polybranchia viridis; 3 del
Mediterra'neo :_, Polybranchia borgnini, Callyphila mediterralH'nea y Oxynoe
olivacea, asi como otras 3 de nueva descripcion."
From Dave Behrens - "I have received several comments concerning the
identification of the photograph of Aplysia vaccaria Winkler, 1955, Number 16
in my fieldguide. The concern intimates that the photograph is actually an A.
californica. I will agree that the specimen is extraordinarily mottled for
an A. vaccaria, although most references report grey-white mottling common
in this species. Regardless, I was unable to locate and procure a high
quality, diagnostic photograph of a more typical A. vaccaria. Though not
apparent in the photograph the parapodia of this specimen were joined
immediately behind the pallial siphon, unlike A. californica, where the
parapodia join near the tail. The body of this specimen displayed the
characteristic firmness of A. vaccaria and during the seven months in
captivity, it never produced ink. The specimen was collected near Ensenada,
Baja California, Mexico.
NEW SUBSCRIBERS & ADDRESSES
Gil Cat, 72 South Africa Blvd., Ash Kelon, Israel 78411
Jay Shrake, Marine Ecological Consultants, 553 Stervens Ave,
Solana Beach, CA 92075
Gordon Robilliard, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, 2 Embarcadero
Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94111
Jeff Goddard (need a good address for Jeff; rumor has it he's working on
branchs at Oregon State)
Peter Oringer, Rt. 1, Box 38, Bayside, CA 95524
Library, Bamfield Marine Station, Bamfield, British Columbia, Canada, VOR
INFORMATION & SPECIMEN EXCHANGE
Tom Cockburn needs a copy of ALLEN, JOHN K., 197,6. Function of nematocysts
in eolid nudibranchs. WSM ANN. REPORT, 9:50. I can't find mine. Can someone
of the genus
At first, the
Dr. Jean Tardy will be glad to receive Aeolidiacea
purposes (Bouin, 10% formaldehyde in sea water and so one
Cerberilla, Aeolidiella and of all species which present
differentiations of papillae to a particular function, for
species of the European Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts
best is to anaesthetize the specimens during 2-4 minutes by
di-oxide in sea water. It's a very good system. The preser
will be sent to J. Tardy, Director, Lab. de Biologie - Biochimie, Marines et
Phycoe'cologie , 10726 - IUT de La Rochelle, Cedex (France).
Dave Behrens needs copies of two Baba papers: ON 0178 and ON 0179-
Ruggero Guidastri needs copies of Staurodoris bicolor description from
Bergh s Malacologisches Untersuchungen (1884) Vol. 3, pp. 655-657, pi- o9 and
Siraims ilo from Marcus (1955) Opisthobranchia from Brazil.
Dr. Ethel Tobach (American Museum of Natural History, Department o:
Behavior, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, New York 10024)
like information about sightings of Aplysia on the Eastern Sea Board
as possible. People may call me collect at the Museum (2 12-87 3-1300)
OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER Volume 13, Number 4, Page 15
BIMODAL SEASONALITY IN MELIBE LEONINA
416 Lilac Drive, Los Osos, CA 93402.
(GOULD, 1852). by David W. Behrens
Annual cycles and the number of generations produced a year in
opisthobranchs have received no attention in the literature pertaining to
northeastern Pacific fauna. Nybakken (1974) reports on the seasonal
occurrence of 17 species of Dendronotacean , Arminacean and Aeolidacean
nudibranchs. Annual cycles of British and European opisthobranchs have
been carefully reported by Garstang (1890), Renouf (1915), Behrentz (1931),
Thompson (1957, 1958, 1961a & b, 1964, 1966) and Miller (1962). Among them,
they report two or more generations a year for 15 species, although in
several cases disagreement exists between authors. These differences are
most likely due to geographical factors.
Settling of the postlarval benthic stage of Melibe leonina (Gould, 1852)
was documented from July 1975 through December 1979- Juveniles were sought
twice weekly in a small kelp bed of Macrocystis integrifolia near Diablo
Cove, San Luis Obispo County, California. Juveniles were first observed at a
length of about 4-7mm. In each instance individuals of progressively
greater size, up to 55mm, were collected subsequently for several weeks
until the species disappeared entirely from the kelp.
During three of five years (1975-1979) two occurrences were observed
(Figure 1). The first annual appearance was in April-May, the second in
September-October, except in 1975 when both generations were observed later,
August and December. An examination of seawater temperatures during
periods of appearances provides no explanation for such periodicity. No
specific temperature or temperature trend stands out as significant (Figure
1975 I976 I977 I 978 * I979
FIGURE 1- Appearance of the benthic existance of Melibe leonina with monthly
mean seawater temperatures.* I 975- I 979
Ajeska & Nybakken (1976) report on the population structure and biology
of Melibe in Monterey Bay ? California, l80kms north of my study site. Their
data suggests one generation per year.
Miller (1962) suggests that species having two or more generations a year
are dependent on fluctuating food supplies, which they exploit rapidly, while
they last. He also reports that this group has a short life-span. I am
unaware of the exact diet of the population at Diablo Cove, however Ajeska &
Nybakken (1976) report that in Monterey Bay the young feed on Macrocystis
associated organisms. Due to the perennial existence of this kelp bed, the
substrate is present continuously, both for Melibe and its associated diet.
OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER Volume 13, Number 4, Page 16
The actual stability of the diet species is unknown, therefore making
difficult to test Miller's food dependency relationship.
LITERATURE CITED: Aieska & Nybakken (1976) ON9692; Behrentz (193D ON
Garstang (1890) ON893; Miller ( 1 962 ) ■ ON 1502 ; Nybakken (1974) ON6550;
(1978) ON2506; Renouf (1915) 0N1887; Thompson (1957) ON2167;
0N2169; Thompson (1961a) 0N2175; Thompson (1961b) 0N2
APR , |
The OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER has established an editorial board. All
papers submitted for publication are subject to review. Citations for all
r, papers" published in the OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER to date are included in
If readers feel additional material should be "cited" please let
The drawings in
ON 12(12):38 were all photo reductions of drawings by Dr
I intend to mail issues of the OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER with a cover wrap
similar to that used on the last issue. If anyone is experiencing damage
from postal handling please let me know. I will try to find something better.
Addressing and licking envelopes is a real pain.
The March issue of volume thirteen was mislabeled as issue 2. I apologize
for the error. The page numbers are correct. One of the beauties of a
computer is that it allows you to make mistakes much more efficiently.
I have been keeping most of my opisthobranch papers and microfiche in
storage for the past five years. This makes it very difficult to find some
papers when copies are requested. I hope to have my office set up within
the next two months or so. Please bear with me. If I cannot find a
requested paper I will try to list it in the ON so that someone else can help
Airmail postage and handling for Dave Behrens opisthobranch book is
$6.00. Surface mail postage is $2.00. Copies are still available from the
ON at $14.95 each plus postage.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF OPISTHOBRAHCHI A
2493 ALTIMIRA, CARLOS & J0AND0MENEC ROS, August 1979- Algunos moluscos
marinos de las Islas Canarias. [Some marine molluscs of the Canary Islands]
VIERAEA, 8(1 ):3-12, figs.. 1-3; 1 tbl. [Spanish; English abstract; 9
onistl*iOLSr*3rich s d g c i g s
2494 BEHRENS, DAVID W., February 1981 . A Color Variation in Chromodoris
macfarlandi ( Nudibranchia: Doridacea). OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 13(2):5;
2495 BEHRENS, DAVID W., 1980 (March, 1981). A
the Opisthobranch Fauna of San Francisco Bay.
12(4-12):34-37, figv 1, tbl. 1.
2496 BLEAKNKX, J. SHERMAN, September 1973- Collecting Nudibranchs in Nova
Scotia. OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 5(9):58-60.
2497 BRIDGES, CECILIA B., September 1973- Ecology and Larval Development
of Phyllaplysia taylori Dall. OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 5(9):50.
2498 CASE, ROBERT M., August 1972. An Ecological Study of Stiliger
f uscovittata (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). MS THESIS, California State
University 76d. 17 text f i£ s
2499 CRA'nE, SANDRA, September 1973- Vital Stains: A Marking Technique for
Nudibranchs. OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 5(9):56.
2500 EDMUNDS, MALCOLM, September 1972. Catriona - Trinchesia.
OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 4(9):47-48; 4 figs.
2501 GREENE, RICHARD W., September 1973- Determination of Photosynthetic
Function in Algal and Chloroplast Symbionts in Opisthobranchs .
OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 5(9):52-55, figs.
2502 KRESS, A., October 1975- Observations During Embryonic Development in
the Genus Doto (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia). OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER,
7(10):50« [Abstract of ON #9548]
2503 LANCE, JAMES R., December 1980. Splendor in the Sea. DISCOVER, The
Newsmagazine of Science,, 1(3)^58-63, color photos. [15 species].
2504 LEMCHE, HENNING, August 15, 1972. Names of Opisthobranchs placed on
the Official Lists and Indexes before 1972. OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER,
2505 LONG, STEVEN J., September 1973- Accumulation and Dissemination of
Information. OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER, 5(9):60. [Abstract]
2506 NYBAKKEN, J., 1978. Abundance, Diversity and Temporal Variability in a
California Intertidal Nudibranch Assemblage. MARINE BIOLOGY, 45:129-146.
Review of the Literature on
Volume 13, Number 5, Page 17
Illustration at right
Trapania dalva Marcus, 1972
Drawing by Eveline Marcus
INTRODUCTION TO THE "OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETT
The Opisthobranch Newsletter is published by Steven J. Long, 359 Roycroit
Ave, Long Beach. California 90814, USA. Telephone 213-439-2028.
Subscription rates are $15.00 per year for individuals and $17-50
for institutions. Back volumes are available at $10.00 per
(24X reduction) of back volumes are $5-00 per volume. My
your subscription is paid for the following years: >_197o, >0977, /* 1978.
_X1979, _^19o0, _><_1 981 1982. Please contact me immediately i "
records show that
_^s1 9 7 7, ^1978,
.y if you feel this
PURPOSE OF TEE OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER
The primary purpose of the Opisthobranch Newsletter is to assist people
working with Opisthobranch mollusks. The newsletter has been published
since 1969 and was inititated to facilitate research and information
exchange by researchers and interested amateurs in all parts of the world.
Personal notes on researches, trips, etc.; notices of meetings; recent
publications concerning Opisthobranchs ; and short articles on
Opisthobranchs are included in issues. In addition, I try to include
bibliographical citations on every paper noting Opisthobranchs.
INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS
I am very dependent on input from subscribers to maintain the information
content of the Opisthobranch Newsletter. Notes and articles should be
pecifically not for publication please note
Articles for publication should be typewritten and laid out exactly as you
would like them published including any drawings at the final size and placed
where you would like them in the text. It is suggested that you use a "cut
and paste" Xerox copy of the materials to lay out your format and include
the originals to any drawings and typescript separately.
I currently have very limited resources for photo reduction so the
illustrations should be sent to fit on my normal page format. The text will
all be put into my computer text editing system manually and then printed out
automatically. Publications will be reviewed by one or more of your peers
for style and content. If time permits you will receive a galley proof for
your review prior to publication. Please refer to the biological style
manuals for basic guidance and to the past issues of the Opisthobranch
Newsletter for examples of acceptable citation and drawing formats. Note
that I have decided to use complete bibliographical citations with papers
published in the Opisthobranch Newsletter.
From David Behrens (416 Lilac Drive, Los Osos, CA 93402): "Hurst (1967)
reports Catriona aurantia from Puget Sound. Has, C. aurantia (now C. gymnota
been collected since, or is it possible that Hurst's critter was Catriona
columbiana (=C. alpha)? Miller (1977) reports Catriona alpha from New
Zealand. Although Williams & Gosliner (1980) refute this species as not
being conspecific with C. alpha by Baba & Hamatani, 1963, I am curious to
know whether there are other possible examples of species occurring circum-
Pacificly. To my knowledge Diaulula sandiegensis and Aldisa sanguinea may
have the widest range, of those species recognized, to occur on both shores.